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  1. Burns, Karyl J. PhD, RN
  2. Jacobs, Barbara B. MPH, PhD, RN, CHPN
  3. Jacobs, Lenworth M. MD, MPH, FACS


The development of the trauma end-of-life optimum support best-practice model was a result of a national call for improved end-of-life care for trauma victims and their families. The model describes best practices for end-of-life care in the prehospital setting, the emergency department, and the intensive care unit. The focus of the best practices is in 6 clinical domains. These include decision making, communication, physical care, psychological care, spiritual care, and culturally sensitive social care. The model has a foundation in the areas of engagement, ethics, education, evaluation, and economics.