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childhood TBI, cognition, expressive language, outcome, reading



  1. Hanten, Gerri PhD
  2. Li, Xiaoqi MS
  3. Newsome, Mary R. PhD
  4. Swank, Paul PhD
  5. Chapman, Sandra B. PhD
  6. Dennis, Maureen PhD
  7. Barnes, Marcia PhD
  8. Ewing-Cobbs, Linda PhD
  9. Levin, Harvey S. PhD


Oral reading and expressive language skills were examined in 2 cohorts of children aged 5-15 years, who had mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury. Children recruited prospectively from time of injury were assessed on 5 occasions over 2 years in a longitudinal study of change in reading skills, using the Gray Oral Reading Test-3rd Edition, and in expressive language, using the Formulated Sentences subtest of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-3rd Edition. Contributions of related cognitive-linguistic skills were also examined. Children recruited retrospectively were studied on a single occasion in a cross-sectional design investigating the contribution of age-related variables to the reading and sentence formulation scores. Similar to previous studies of childhood traumatic brain injury, children injured when younger initially showed a more rapid rate of recovery but poorer overall performance on outcome measures than did children injured when older. Socioeconomic status strongly predicted outcome for both reading and expressive language.