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empowerment, HIV testing, Nepal, women



  1. Thapa, Roshna MSN, RN
  2. Yang, Youngran PhD, MPH, RN


Abstract: We examined the association of women empowerment and HIV testing in Nepalese women. Data from the 2012 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey provided a sample of 6,579 females ages 15-49 years. Women empowerment subcategories included participation in decision making, attitudes about safer sex negotiation, and sexual autonomy. Only 454 participants (6.9%) had been tested for HIV. Of note, 41.3% had high participation in decision making, 84.5% showed positive attitudes about safer sex negotiation, and 71.8% scored high in sexual autonomy. After adjusting potential confounders, the odds of being tested were higher for women with positive attitudes about safer sex negotiation (adjusted odds ratio = 1.444, 95% confidence interval: 1.006-2.072, p = .046) and high sexual autonomy (adjusted odds ratio = 3.138, 95% confidence interval: 1.375-7.164, p = .007). Age, education, and wealth were independent factors determining the women's HIV testing approach. Our study can be a guide for interventions and policies to empower women and encourage HIV testing in Nepal.