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Keywords

Breast cancer, Cultural adaptation, Reliability, Self-efficacy, Translation, Validity

 

Authors

  1. Yuan, Xiaoling MSN, RN
  2. Wu, Fulei MSN
  3. Howell, Doris PhD
  4. Yuan, Changrong PhD, RN, FAAN

Abstract

Background: Self-efficacy is a crucial variable that is related to quality of life. Patients who have high self-efficacy will exert sufficient effort and have better health outcomes and improved quality of life. Appropriate and precise measurement of self-efficacy can help promote better care. The Breast Cancer Survivor Self-efficacy Scale (BCSES) is designed to measure the perceived confidence of breast cancer patients in managing the tasks for self-management. Originally developed in America, it has not been used in China.

 

Objectives: The aims of this study were to translate BCSES into Chinese and assess its psychometric properties among Chinese patients.

 

Methods: In phase 1, the translation of BCSES closely followed the Principles of Good Practices. In phase 2, data on reliability and validity were evaluated in terms of internal consistency, item-total correlations, test-retest reliability, criterion validity, and construct validity. A total sample of 630 native Chinese-speaking patients from 5 hospitals in China participated, including a pilot sample of 182 and a validation sample of 448.

 

Results: Minor modifications in 5 items were recommended after translation. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses suggested a 2-factor structure was more ideal than the original 1-factor model. Cronbach's [alpha] coefficient for the Chinese version of BCSES was .82, intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97, and item-total correlations were from 0.61 to 0.76.

 

Conclusions: The Chinese version of BCSES appears to be culturally appropriate, reliable, and valid for assessing self-efficacy among patients with breast cancer in China.

 

Implication for Practice: The Chinese version of BCSES could help measure the breast cancer patients' self-efficacy and provide evidence to develop culturally sensitive interventions for Chinese patients.