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  1. Makri, Andrea
  2. Koulenti, Aphroditi
  3. Argyrou, Kyriaki
  4. Gordon, Wayne
  5. Constantinidou, Fofi


Purpose: This study is part of the first systematic program in the Republic of Cyprus examining the prevalence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children, teenagers, and university students. The study incorporated the Greek Version of the Brain Injury Screening Questionnaire (BISQ-G) as the primary tool to identify students with TBI.


Methods: The BISQ-G was sent out to 2,800 families of children (aged 6-18 years) attending rural and urban elementary and secondary schools from varied socioeconomic backgrounds. Nine hundred forty-four questionnaires (33.8%) were returned. In addition to school-aged children, 322 university students (aged 17-25 years) were recruited from 3 universities and completed the BISQ-G.


Results: Analyses indicated that 5.8% elementary, 9.7% secondary, and 22.7% university students had symptoms consistent with TBI. Several participants reported more than 1 TBI. Etiology of TBI was similar in all 3 groups and included sports, biking, and falls. Factor analyses yielded a 7-factor structure for the BISQ-G.


Discussion/Conclusions: The BISQ-G is a valid tool for the identification of individuals with a prior history of TBI. Causes and symptoms of TBI were similar to those reported in the international literature. The article concludes with suggestions for TBI management in the schools.