[usPropHeader] Error loading user control: The file '/CMSWebParts/WK.HLRP/LNC/LNCProductHeader.ascx' does not exist.

Buy this Article for $7.95

Have a coupon or promotional code? Enter it here:

When you buy this you'll get access to the ePub version, a downloadable PDF, and the ability to print the full article.


Breast cancer, Iranian women, Stages of mammography adoption



  1. Taymoori, Parvaneh PhD
  2. Berry, Tanya PhD
  3. Roshani, Daem PhD


Background: Despite evidence that screening for breast cancer is effective, adherence with screening recommendations in Iranian women is low.


Objectives: The aims of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between related beliefs and (b) to determine to what extent women in stages of mammography adoption differ in their agreement of individual perceived health beliefs.


Methods: A sample of 686 Iranian women completed a questionnaire including selected constructs of the Health Belief Model and stages of mammography adoption.


Results: Proportions of participants who were in the preadoption and adoption stages were 75% and 17.8%, respectively. Precontemplators showed significantly lower positive attitude and greater agreement for most of the barrier items than did those in other adoption stages. In terms of specific items, women in the relapse and maintenance stages endorsed greatest agreement for the barrier items "not knowing how to get a mammogram" and "forget to schedule," respectively. Common barriers for women in preadoption stages were being painful, taking much time, and embarrassing.


Conclusion: Iranian women are less likely than other Asian women to be in the maintenance and action stages. Identifying the associations between perceived related beliefs items and stages of mammography adoption may provide detailed information to allow for future research and guide the development of interventions not only for Iranian women but also for similar cultural and immigrant groups that have been neglected to date in the breast cancer literature.


Implications for Practice: Examining the interactions between perceived related beliefs items and other beliefs such as perceived control and self-efficacy to having a mammography is warranted.